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Orthotics Services

Lower & Upper Limb Extremity Orthoses

Lower-Limb Extremity Orthoses

Upper-Limb Orthoses

Lower-Limb Extremity Orthotics


A lower-limb orthosis is an external device applied (or attached) to a lower-body segment to improve function by controlling motion, providing support through stabilizing gait, reducing pain through transferring load to another area, correcting flexible deformities, and preventing progression of fixed deformities.


Foot orthotics
Orthotics—comprising a specially fitted insert for the insole or footbed, and providing support for the foot only—are often used as arch support, Pes planus,etc.
Ankle-Foot Orthosis (AFOs)
Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are orthoses or braces (usually plastic), encompassing the ankle joint and all (or part) of the foot. AFOs are externally applied and intended to control position and motion of the ankle, compensate for weakness, or correct deformities.[9] They control the ankle directly, and can be designed to control the knee joint indirectly as well.[9] AFOs are commonly used in the treatment of disorders affecting muscle function such as stroke, spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, polio, multiple sclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. AFOs can be used to support wasted limbs, or to position a limb with contracted muscles into a more normal position. They are also used to immobilize the ankle and lower leg in the presence of arthritis or fracture, and to correct foot drop; an AFO is also known as a foot-drop brace.

An AFO is generally constructed of lightweight polypropylene-based plastic in the shape of an “L”, with the upright portion behind the calf and the lower portion running under the foot. They are attached to the calf with a strap, and are made to fit inside accommodative shoes. The unbroken “L” shape of some designs provides rigidity, while other designs (with a jointed ankle) provide different types of control.
Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis (KAFOs)


A knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) is an orthosis that encumbers the knee, ankle and foot. Motion at all three of these lower limb areas is affected by a KAFO and can include stopping motion, limiting motion, or assisting motion in any or all of the 3 planes of motion in a human joint: saggital, coronal, and axial. Mechanical hinges, as wel as electrically controlled hinges have been used. Various materials for fabrication of a KAFO include but are not limited to metals, plastics, fabrics, and leather. Conditions that might benefit from the use of a KAFO include paralysis, joint laxity or arthritis, fracture, and others.
Knee Orthosis (KO)


A knee orthosis (KO) or knee brace is a brace worn to strengthen the knee. It is worn around the knee, and works by relieving pressure from the part of the knee joint affected by diseases such as arthritis or osteoarthritis. It also supports the knee, and provides the stability needed to perform daily activities. Knee braces may also help to properly align the knee to help reduce osteoarthritis pain.[13] If pain or instability is experienced, a knee brace may be appropriate. It is beneficial in several ways; when used properly, a knee brace may help an athlete to stay in training. Knee braces may also help by improving symmetry, enhancing the position and movement of the knee while reducing pain so a person may remain active.
Prophylactic, functional and rehabilitation braces
Prophylactic braces are used primarily by athletes participating in contact sports. While it is possible that this type of brace will alter the force on the knee and become problematic, when worn properly it decreases the rate of injury. The majority of these braces are made of neoprene. It acts as a sleeve, providing support to the structure of the knee and reducing the knee’s ability to rotate.Functional braces are designed for use by people who have already experienced a knee injury and need support to recover from it. They are also indicated to help people who are suffering from pain associated with arthritis. They are intended to reduce the rotation of the knee and support stability. They reduce the chance of hyperextension, and increase the agility and strength of the knee. The majority of these are made of elastic. They are the least expensive of all braces and are easily found in a variety of sizes.

Rehabilitation braces are used to limit the movement of the knee in both medial and lateral directions. They are primarily used after injury or surgery to immobilize the leg. They are larger in size than other braces, due to their function.

Unloader Braces
The unloader brace was developed by a Canadian company, Generation II. Originally, the knee orthosis design that became the custom unloader brace was a functional knee brace for use by athletes. Their single upright design lent itself well to use by individuals with unicompartmental arthritic knee pain. The idea was that the brace could shift the weight bearing vector when walking off of the painful intercondylar area onto the other intercondylar area. The company enjoyed success with their design, even trademarking the term “unloader” brace.
Spinal Orthoses
A Spinal orthotic device is an external apparatus that is applied to the body to limit the motion of, correct deformity in, reduce axial loading on,or improve the function of a particular spinal segment of the body.There are a number of spinal orthotic designs common to assist individuals with pathologies of the neck and back.

Thoracolumbar Spinal Orthosis(TLSO)
The term TLSO has come to indicate a plastic body jacket to immobilize the thoracolumbar spine, although that term describes any type of orthosis that encumbers the trunk, ranging from soft corsets to metal braces to strap and pad designs that affect pathologies ranging from back pain to scoliosis to fracture.
The condition know as scoliosis, a curvature of the spine, is treated with spinal orthoses, such as the Milwaukee brace, the Boston brace, and Charleston bending brace. Generally, this condition is found in adolescent females who have great concern about the appearance and restriction the various orthoses prescribed to address the condition present.

Cervical Thoracic Orthosis(CTO)
The halo brace (also known as a halo ring, halo vest or halo crown) is a cervical thoracic orthosis brace used to immobilize the cervical spine, usually following fracture. The halo brace allows the least cervical motion of all cervical braces currently in use.

Cervical Orthosis
The cervical orthosis is the one that encircles the neck and supports the chin,used in the treatment of injuries of the cervical spine. Examples: Soft collar,Rigid collar,Philadelphia Collar,Aspen Collar,et


Upper Extremity Prosthetics

Upper-limb (extremity) orthoses are devices applied externally to restore or improve functional and structural characteristics of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. In general, musculoskeletal problems include those resulting from trauma, sports, and work-related injuries.


Static Orthoses
As the term implies, these devices do not allow motion. They provide rigid support for fractures, inflammatory conditions of tendons and soft tissue, and nerve injuries.
Dynamic/functional Orthoses


In contrast to static orthoses these devices permit motion, on which their effectiveness depends. These types of upper-extremity orthoses are used primarily to assist movement of weak muscles. Some dynamic splints have a dual or bilateral mechanism for providing tension, safely accommodating moments of spasm and thus limiting (or avoiding) soft-tissue injuries.
Types Of Upper-Limb Orthoses
In contrast to static orthoses these devices permit motion, on which their effectiveness depends. These types of upper-extremity orthoses are used primarily to assist movement of weak muscles. Some dynamic splints have a dual or bilateral mechanism for providing tension, safely accommodating moments of spasm and thus limiting (or avoiding) soft-tissue injuries.

  • Upper-Arm Orthoses
  1. Clavicular and shoulder Orthoses
  2. Arm Orthoses
  3. Functional arm Orthoses
  4. Elbow orthoses
  • Forearm-wrist orthoses
  • Forearm-wrist-thumb orthoses
  • Forearm-wrist-hand orthoses
  • Hand orthoses
  • Upper-extremity orthoses (with special functions)

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